Keras is a deep learning library that can run on TensorFlow among other platforms. TensorFlow is an end-to-end machine learning platform with Keras as one of its libraries. However, Keras can run on other ML platforms.

In a browser, opening a Colab notebook and writing the following commands imports some essential libraries to create and use a deep learning model.

import tensorflow as tf from tensorflow import keras from matplotlib import pyplot import numpy as np

Matplotlib is useful in creating static, animated, and interactive visualizations in Python while NumPy; numerical Python is a linear algebra library for python

**Loading the data**. TensorFlow keras has some common datasets that can be used for an introduction into deep learning. These include fashion MNIST which is a data set comprised of fashion items that include: shoes, coats, dresses etc in gray scale.

#loading the data fashion_mnist = keras.datasets.fashion_mnist (X_train_full, y_train_full), (X_test, y_test) = fashion_mnist.load_data() #creation of validation data X_valid, X_train = X_train_full[:5000] / 255.0, X_train_full[5000:] / 255.0 y_valid, y_train = y_train_full[:5000], y_train_full[5000:] #modifying test data to match the train and validation data X_test, y_test = X_test/255.0, y_test

2.** Plotting the data**

Displaying a few images to get a feel of the data set. Plotting some of the data set in Pyplot. This requires defining the plot size as well as the number of items to be displayed.

for i in range(1,20): # define subplot pyplot.subplot(5,5,i) # plot raw pixel data pyplot.imshow(X_train[i], cmap=pyplot.get_cmap('gray')) # show the figure pyplot.show()

3. **Model creation**

A sequential model has various layers defined in a logic manner. The flatten layer changes the 2D image input into a 1D array. The pixels are thus rearranged and lined up. The dense layer has each of the inputs i.e. the flattened values connected to the layers of the next layer. The last layer, softmax gives a probability output i.e. the probability of an input image belonging to one of the label class

model = keras.models.Sequential() model.add(keras.layers.Flatten(input_shape=[28, 28])) model.add(keras.layers.Dense(300, activation="relu")) model.add(keras.layers.Dense(100, activation="relu")) model.add(keras.layers.Dense(10, activation="softmax"))

4. **Model compilation and use**

#Model compilation & fit model.compile(loss="sparse_categorical_crossentropy", optimizer="sgd", metrics=["accuracy"]) #training the model model.fit(X_train, y_train, epochs=10,validation_data=(X_valid, y_valid)) #making a prediction predictions = model.predict(X_test)

The full Colab notebook is in the link below and should take one through creating a simple neural network and using it to make a prediction

https://colab.research.google.com/drive/1eLaX8c5c20XTu59LfvCSlXUi8wX0QM-W?usp=sharing

inGeoInformation## An Introduction to TensorFlow and Keras

byNjoki